Are These 8 Real Estate Disclosures Protecting The Buyer Or Some Other Party?

Posted By on November 24, 2015

Here you are, a ready, willing and able buyer who has finally found that Florida condo, townhouse, or home of your dreams.  You are excited about closing the deal and moving into your new South Florida home. It’s a great time, no more spending hours conducting online searches and car rides with your real estate agent, roaming through properties.

Now comes the “closing process.” This is the time when you, as the buyer, and the seller iron out all of the details of the purchase and sale. For the buyer, this is the time when they investigate and learn as much as possible about the property — the physical structure, the chain of title, and municipal and other governmental  and quasi- governmental issues— before they finalize their purchase.


FEMA - 37593 - Home surrounded by flood waters in Florida

What does a Florida seller have to disclose to the home buyer about risk of flooding? What is the buyer’s duty to find out about this risk?


Examining Disclosure Statements

One way that a Florida buyer learns is through the examination of disclosure statements. Sellers of residential property are required by law to disclose all sorts of things to their buyers. (see our earlier article about pre-printed disclosures that are normally attached and incorporated into most Florida residential real estate contracts, and our article about disclosures made by sellers by answering questions about the property, which is sometimes, but not always, given to a buyer, and our article about disclosures related to the role of a real estate professional in a residential real estate transaction.)

Disclosures help buyers learn about things like flood zones, sewer systems, property taxes, and much more. Disclosures help the sellers, too: by disclosing things up front, the seller protects him or herself from any future legal claim for a hidden defect or problem with the property.

Are All Of These Disclosure Documents Protecting The Buyer?

Some real estate professionals have their own internal forms that they have buyers sign before a closing occurs. These forms look pretty standard, but they are written in a way that has the buyer acknowledging seller disclosures, which may sound odd to some.  Are these internal disclosure forms protecting the real estate professional from a future claim or are they designed to help the buyer?

The disclosure document usually has a warning that is printed directly above or below the signature line that contains language as follows (or something close to it):

If you do not understand some point, please ask us to explain it and do not sign any document until you clearly understand it. If you are not satisfied with any explanation provided, you are encouraged to consult a real estate attorney.


8 Disclosures That Buyers Are Sometimes Asked To Acknowledge:

1. Radon Gas

It is disclosed to the buyer that radon gas is toxic and radioactive. It is a health hazard. It occurs naturally here in Florida. Radon and radon testing can be done by the local public health unit of the county where the property is located if the buyer is concerned. Florida Statute 404.056(8).

2. Energy Efficiency

Buyers can also have the property tested for energy efficiency tested, and receive a Florida Building Energy-Efficiency Rating System Information Brochure, pursuant to Florida Statute 553.996.

3. Property Taxes

Buyers need to double check how much they will be responsible for in property taxes before they close. The seller may provide their current property taxes, but buyers need to know that tax may change after the closing. A change of ownership recorded down with the clerk’s office may mean the taxes are reassessed and the property tax assessment goes up. Buyers should check with the property appraiser in the county where the property is located for details.

4. Schools and School Zones

Buyers need to check with the board of directors for the school district for details including grade level caps and school zones.

5. Square Footage of the Property

If the buyer wants to know what the exact square footage of the improvements on the property, then they have the right to go and measure it for themselves before closing. The seller may want the buyer to sign a written acknowledgment in the Disclosure Statement that the buyer has not relied upon the seller (or the broker) for estimates of the square footage.

6. Inspections

Brokers and sellers in Florida can disclose to the buyer that they do not guarantee or warrant the property’s condition. They will disclose this and ask that the broker acknowledge in writing via the Disclosure Statement that they seller (and the broker) are not responsible for the condition of the property. This limits their liability if there’s a problem after closing.

And it is disclosed that the buyer understands he or she should get all the inspections that seem prudent, including those listed in the Contract for Sale and Purchase. It will be up to the buyer to find the inspectors to conduct inspections. They need to find qualified, independent professionals.

7. Land Use Disclaimer

Land use is controlled by local, state, and federal law. You cannot open a restaurant in the middle of a condo tower, for example. However, these land use regulations change all the time here in Florida, reacting to changing needs of the local economy.

Which means that buyers will be asked to recognize in the Disclosure Statement that it is the buyer’s duty to find out the current land use for the property as well as recognizing that the city (or country) Comprehensive Land Use Plan applies to it. The buyer needs to know if the property lies within city limits or not, and only county land use laws apply.

Land use is also impacted by covenants in the deed, zoning laws, and other real estate use restrictions. It’s the buyer’s job to investigate what these are and to understand them. The seller and their broker and agent will ask that the buyer acknowledge that they have made no representations for land use, that investigating land use is the buyer’s duty, and that the buyer releases them all from any statements they may have made for land use of the property. This limits their liability if there’s a problem after closing.

8. Road and Drainage Maintenance

The buyer will also be asked to acknowledge that he or she is responsible for keeping up (maintain and repair) all the roads and water drainage for the property unless an easement exists where there is a government agency that controls and owns them and has legal responsibility for their maintenance.

What Should You Do?

Disclosure statements are important for various reasons including sometimes being used as part of a misrepresentation claim against a real estate broker (and its agent). Having a Florida real estate lawyer review the disclosure statements (and requiring the seller to provide answers to questions about the condition of the property) before closing is normally a wise decision and not as expensive as many assume it to be.  Most real estate lawyers, like Larry Tolchinsky, offer a free initial consultation to answer questions.


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Do you have questions or comments? Then please feel free to send Larry an email or call him now at (954) 458-8655.


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Real Estate Listing Agreements: What Happens When An Agent Circumvents the Law?

Posted By on November 10, 2015

It’s not news that Florida real estate professionals do bad things. Don’t get me wrong, there are solid professionals selling homes and condos here and then there are bad apples, too. Unfortunately, there are more real estate wrongdoing happening in Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties than you might think.

All Florida real estate brokers, and the real estate agents that work for them showing and selling residential property, are supposed to work within a specific set of laws passed by the Florida Legislature. Key here: they are supposed to know these laws, and follow them.

It’s a bigger job than you might think. There’s a lot more than one or two statutes to know. In fact, the entire Chapter 475 of the Florida Statutes focuses upon regulating the real estate profession. Under Florida Statute 475.001, these laws control the actions of real estate brokers, real estate agents, and real estate schools.

Failure to obey all these statutes means punishment of some kind. A license can pulled, for example, by the Florida Real Estate Commission. Criminal charges can be filed. It can also mean that the work of that real estate agent or broker will be considered void and not legally valid if the work was done outside Chapter 475’s specifics. That decision may be made in a Florida court, with damages awarded to the victim of the agent or broker.

How Does Failure to Follow Florida’s Real Estate Laws Impact Your Agreement To Pay A Commission For The Sale Of Your Home or Condo?

For instance, what happens when you are faced with a situation where the real estate professional is not properly licensed by the State of Florida to do business here as a broker or agent. If a person acting as a Florida real estate agent or broker agrees to sell, or even goes so far as to negotiate the sale of your home or condo, but didn’t bother to get or keep up a valid Florida real estate license, then that contract to pay a commission to that party is considered void under Florida law.

This is true even if the person was permitted, under the sales contract, to hire agents and brokers to act on his or her behalf, that were legally licensed by the state. That contract or sales agreement cannot be enforced and the seller does not owe them any commission.


Map of Florida highlighting Broward County

A Florida real estate license applies statewide, not just to a particular county. But it better be valid and current!


The Case of The Unlicensed Broker Hiring Licensed Agents To Work for Him

Here’s an example. In the case of Wegmann v. Mannino, 253 F.2d 627 (5th Cir. 1958),  a contract was signed by William Wegmann and Nicholas Mannino (and others) for the development and sale of the Harbor View Villas subdivision. Wegmann had not registered as a real estate broker under Florida law. Harbor View Villas went forward: people bought into the subdivision. Things went well — until it came time for Wegmann to be paid under the agreement.

Mannino argued that Wegmann could not collect sales commissions on the real estate deals because he wasn’t a valid, licensed real estate broker.

So, Wegmann sued for “specific performance” of the sales agreement, to force Mannino to pay him. He lost.

Both sides agreed that under Florida Statute 475.41, if Wegmann’s actions were those of a real estate broker then the law would bar him from getting a commission on any sales. However, Wegmann tried to argue that the specific terms of the sales agreement didn’t bar him from being paid because he wasn’t acting as a broker personally. So he should be paid — he didn’t act as a real estate sales person, he hired people to do that for him.

The court reviewed each paragraph of the contract, word by word. It contained language that Wegmann was to act as an “agent” regarding the 68 acres of land owned by Mannino and his pals, including setting up a field office, and to “… employ suitable help, salesmen, or brokers, set up signs, advertise, and sell the lots.”

Accordingly, the court held, Wegmann was due no commission under Florida Statute 475.41. Even if, as he argued, that he didn’t do the work himself but hired agents and brokers that were legally licensed to do the job for him, that didn’t change things. The contract had Wegmann as the person ”… to supervise and control the subdividing, advertising and selling of a subdivision which the statute prohibited to all but licensed persons.”

From the Florida court, therefore, a warning to anyone who wants to circumvent Florida Chapter 475: it is considered an “important public policy in Florida” that real estate brokers are strictly regulated, and that licenses be issued only to “qualified persons of good character” because this is best for the Florida public interest, to protect the state’s citizens. The real estate professional who tries to work around the law does so at his or her peril.

Do You Suspect That Florida Law Was Not Followed by Your Real Estate Agent or Broker?

If you suspect that your real estate agent or broker has not followed the law in some way regarding the sale of your Florida home or condo, then you can file a complaint with the Florida Real Estate Commission – but they only have the power to deal with the real estate professional, their job is not to assess and award damages to you for your harm. For a claim for justice, you need to work with a Florida real estate lawyer to pursue your claims for fraud, breach of contract, and other civil causes of action. These may be negotiated and settled at a settlement table or pre-lawsuit mediation, or you may have to file an official lawsuit. Discussing your particular circumstances with an experienced Florida real estate lawyer can help you decide what is the best action for you to take.


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Do you have questions or comments? Then please feel free to send Larry an email or call him now at (954) 458-8655.

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What Are The Risks With Airbnb If You Rent Your Florida Home or Condo?

Posted By on November 3, 2015

The holiday season is here, and there are people all over the world who plan of spending their vacation basking in the warm Florida sunshine. Unfortunately, hotels and resorts throughout South Florida are already booked.  However, there’s still lodging opportunities for travelers who wish to visit Miami and Fort Lauderdale and our beautiful Florida beaches using Airbnb and similar online “sharing” rental services.


House Silhouette


What is Airbnb?

Airbnb is one of several online listing rental services that connects owners with renters who are interested in renting out a guest bedroom or the whole house or condo for a few days or weeks. These are short term rentals set up via the online site, directly between condo owner and prospective tenant.

From Airbnb’s site, you are told that renters can “discover amazing places” by finding “hosts with extra rooms, entire homes, and unique accommodations like castles and igloos.” Meanwhile, owners can rely on “Airbnb’s trusted services” to connect, confirm travel dates, and coordinate payment.”

Hosts on Airbnb set the rent. Hosts upload and keep track of their online rental calendar. Key here: hosts don’t have to pay to place the rental on Airbnb. When the host shows their rental as available to let, Airbnb includes their space in its search results.

What Are Some Issues for Florida Home and Condo Owners Who Want to Rent Their Places?

For those who own condos, townhouses, or single family homes here in South Florida, there are lots of benefits to short term renting services like Airbnb. It’s a great way to make some extra cash.

But there are important issues to consider before using one of these online rental services as a real estate owner in Florida. Things like:

1. Who Must Pay Taxes?

For one thing, there is the question of taxes (bed tax, sales tax, etc.). Short term rentals by home owners puts them in the business of providing lodging, just like Hyatt or Hilton. Which means that the taxing authorities may well expect to be paid lodging related taxes.

Airbnb provides an on-site list of jurisdictions that impose these taxes, and Airbnb also collects and remits the taxes on behalf of its hosts.  Florida (and some of its municipalities) expect to be paid these lodging taxes, and no – they aren’t the same as income tax. (Hosts may have to pay federal income taxes on their rental revenues in addition to the lodging tax (which may be deductible). Check with your tax advisor.)

2. Do Condo Boards Like It?

For condo owners, renting out your beautiful South Florida condo on Airbnb may sound like a great idea to make some money. However, your neighbors may not like the idea of strangers traipsing through the condo complex using the common elements; the Condo Association may have something to say about it, too.

Whether or not you are allowed to sublet your condo in short term online rentals is covered by the condo rules and regulations. There are Florida condos where you can’t do any kind of “house swap” even if you don’t get paid, much less where you rent out the place.

Condo owners who jump onto Airbnb and start renting out their Florida condo may be surprised to find themselves subject to fines and other negative ramifications from their association.

3. Who Bears The Risk of Injury Claims?

Consider the recent news story out of Rhode Island. This past July, a young American student traveled to Spain and, being on a budget, decided to take advantage of an Airbnb rental in Madrid. Once he got there, he was held in the apartment against his will and sexually assaulted.

While he was able to contact his mother by phone, she had a horrific time trying to get him help with the local police — if fact, they didn’t make it to the Airbnb rental in time to prevent the rape.

Not only did Airbnb not take on liability for the injury in the Airbnb rental, that was an issue to be addressed between host and renter, but Airbnb also didn’t take on any responsibility for trying to get help.  That’s why the mother in America was trying to call Spanish police.

For the Florida home owner, this story is important.  Florida hosts on Airbnb (or other sharing sites) need to understand the risk of someone being hurt or killed while renting their place.  It needs to be evaluated carefully. Airbnb is offering a free $1,000,000 liability insurance policy to cover its U.S. hosts under its “Host Protection Insurance Program.”

However, this is insurance coverage that will take effect only after the home owner’s primary coverage has been used. It is “secondary” coverage.

A big concern for Florida home owners: the host’s homeowner’s policy needs to be checked, too. Many homeowner’s insurance policies will not cover commercial uses of the home, and these short-term rentals can be considered lodging for profit.

How Can A Florida Real Estate Lawyer Help Owners Who Want To Rent Out Their Homes?

The new “sharing” economy is here to stay. And in this economy, renting out your extra room or that weekend condo may provide extra resources for your family budget or for your retirement plan. However, there are some serious issues to consider — like liability for injuries from slip and falls and other premises liability issues. Having a Florida real estate attorney working with you before you decide to rent your home can protect you and your loved ones in the long run — and it may cost much less than you think.  Most real estate lawyers, like Larry Tolchinsky, offer a free initial consultation to answer your questions.


Picture of Larry Tolchinsky

Do you have questions or comments? Then please feel free to send Larry an email or call him now at (954) 458-8655.


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Will Your Claim Survive A Summary Judgment Motion?

Posted By on October 27, 2015

Will Your Fraudulent Misrepresentation Claim About The Square Footage Of Your Home Survive A Motion For Summary Judgment?

In Florida, after a plaintiff files a lawsuit (also known as a “complaint”), the defendant must file a formal response (called an “answer”) to the complaint. The plaintiff lays out his or her issues in the complaint, and the defendant responds by denying liability for the claims asserted by the plaintiff.


Ruler image


After these two initial steps are taken by the parties, the process of gathering information and compiling authentic, admissible evidence begins. This is called the ‘discovery’ process. Under both federal and state law, after a certain amount of discovery has taken place, the defendant can file a motion with court for a “summary judgment.” In this request, the defendant is asking the judge to rule in his or her favor, arguing that there is no genuine issue of material fact in the controversy and as a matter of law, they should win.

Motions for Summary Judgments in Real Estate Broker Cases

Experienced plaintiffs’ lawyers expect Motions for Summary Judgment to be filed by defendants in many, if not most, lawsuits. Lawyers representing defendants love to use this tool, it’s common practice in Florida litigation cases.

However, just because it’s a common defense tactic doesn’t mean that it’s going to be effective or result in a win for the defendant. If the plaintiff can demonstrate that a material issue of fact exists, then the motion will not be granted.

Because a summary judgment takes away the plaintiff’s constitutionally protected right to a jury trial, Florida courts are hesitant to allow them. Before a summary judgment will be granted, all doubts regarding the existence of a material fact issue — the defendant has what is essentially the job of conclusively showing the judge that they have a right to what they’re asking to have. This is the highest burden of proof in civil proceedings. SeeHoll v. Talcott, 191 So.2d 40 (Fla. 1966)Sunshine State Insurance Company V. Jones, 77 So. 3D 254 (Fla. Dist. Ct. App. 2012).

Understanding the nuances of summary judgment procedure is particularly important in cases where a buyer of residential real estate discovers that the property they purchased isn’t the size or square footage that they understood it to be at closing.

Sometimes these errors in square footage are simple mistakes, and are simply the result of negligence. However, sometimes the buyer is intentionally mislead about how big or how small the property he or she is purchasing really is — and that intentional behavior is the basis of a fraudulent misrepresentation lawsuit against a real estate broker, real estate agent, and/or seller, in which the victim seeks recovery of their damages.

Can a defendant in this situation dismiss a lawsuit by filing a motion for summary judgment?

Consider the case of Miller v. Sullivan, 475 So. 2d 1010 (Fla. Dist. Ct. App. 1985).  Here, Mark and Patricia Sullivan decided to sell their house, and they put in up for sale with the help of their listing real estate broker, Betty Hilgendorf. In the listing agreement between the sellers and the broker, and on the Multiple Listing Service (MLS), their home was described as being “measured” at 1417 square feet.

Meanwhile, the buyer, Robert Miller, had decided to wanted to buy a house and had hired another Florida real estate broker, Edward Luce, to help him find a house to buy. Sure enough, the paths of the Millers and the Sullivans crossed and soon, Mr. Miller had entered in a purchase agreement to buy the Sullivan’s house.

Miller used the MLS listing printout as part of his decision to buy the place. Miller, the buyer, testified that his broker told him that the 1417 square feet included the heated and cooled area of the home.

Miller bought the home. A year passed.

Miller decided to sell it. When he prepared to put the house up for sale, he measured the home and discovered that the house was really only 1092 square feet. He also found out that the county record tax rolls showed the property to have 1092 square feet. Where was that other 300 or so square feet, the difference between what he thought he had at closing and what he now knew he really owned? That was the total square footage if you included the garage and utility room — which aren’t heated or cooled.

So Mr. Miller sued. He sued the sellers. He sued their broker. And he sued his broker. He based his claims on fraud, negligence, and breach of contract.

The sellers and their broker moved for summary judgment on the buyer’s claims against them, and the trial court granted their motion. So, Mr. Miller appealed that ruling and he won (in part) on appeal.

The appeals court held that the summary judgment in favor of the Sullivans, as sellers, would stand. There was no evidence presented to show that the Sullivans ever made any representations — either fraudulent or negligent — regarding the square footage of their house, and the broker listing agreement wasn’t incorporated into their sales contract with Mr. Miller.

However, the seller’s real estate broker wasn’t so lucky. The appellate court ruled that the summary judgment shouldn’t have been granted in the broker’s favor on the buyer’s claims against her.

Why? The buyer had evidence of disputed fact issues on whether the seller’s real estate broker had committed fraud or was negligent in handling the real estate transaction where the square footage of the property was inaccurate. For instance, there was an issue about the industry standard on the definition of square footage and how brokers report this information on the MLS; Does square footage include the total area of the premises (the total enclosed or covered area of a house) or does it just include the heated and cooled area of the home. There were other issues as well: did the broker check the measurements herself, and did she have a duty to do so?

The case was returned to the lower court to be resolved by either a trial or through settlement negotiations.

Do You Have a Claim Related To A Real Estate Transaction?

In South Florida, residential real estate closings happen every day. If you suspect something wrong in your recent real estate transaction, and that you may have been the victim of a seller, real estate agent, or real estate broker’s mistakes or outright fraud, then you may be able to recover your damages. An experienced Florida real estate lawyer can help you decide if you have a case worth pursing and if your claim can withstand a summary judgment motion.  Most real estate lawyers, like Larry Tolchinsky, will be happy to provide a free initial consultation to answer your questions.

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Do you have questions or comments? Then please feel free to Chat with Larry in the comments below, at, or call him now at (954) 458-8655.



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Real Estate Brokers And Agents Must Be Licensed In Florida!

Posted By on October 20, 2015

Florida law requires that all real estate brokers and real estate agents not only get licensed by the State of Florida in order to do business here, but that they keep up those licenses with through continuing education.

For example, there have been big changes this year with the new “TRID” rules. These are new federal regulations that became effective on October 3, 2015, and they change the disclosure process and the time frame of disclosures of things like interest rates in residential real estate home loans and mortgages. Florida real estate brokers and the real estate agents are required to know and understand these changes as part of their professional duties.

Why would a real estate broker or real estate agent work without having a current license? Sometimes, they are foreign real estate professionals who may not understand or respect that Florida law applies to them, especially if they are only dealing with a single transaction here in Florida. Why should they worry about being licensed in Florida if the buyer and seller are abroad?

In other situations, these agents may know that they are supposed to have a Florida license but for some reason they are unable to get one. Maybe they have already been suspended. Maybe they are bad apples that just don’t care about our laws or they know they will never be approved by Florida’s regulatory body.


Okay hand gesture

Just because the broker says everything is A-Okay doesn’t mean it is: unlicensed brokers can act very professionally.

Do You Have To Pay A Commission When The Broker Or Agent Does Not Have A Florida Real Estate License?

When a real estate agent or broker acts without being licensed by the State of Florida, the law allows for these people to be punished, including financial penalties. Under Florida Statute 475.41, commissions are considered invalid if the real estate professional is not properly and currently licensed by the State of Florida:

No contract for a commission or compensation for any act or service enumerated in s. 475.01(3) is valid unless the broker or sales associate has complied with this chapter in regard to issuance and renewal of the license at the time the act or service was performed.

In other words, if it is revealed that the real estate agent or real estate broker in the sale of a Florida home or condo has an invalid real estate license, then they are not able to collect a commission.

The Case of the Swiss Real Estate Broker Who Made the Sales But Didn’t Get Paid

In the case of Revac, S.A. v. Arthur V. Woodward, P.A., 550 So.2d 3 (Fla. 2d DCA 1989), a respected real estate brokerage was denied its commission in a case that it appealed to the Florida appeals court and lost.

The case began one sunny autumn here in Florida, when the owners of a timeshare condominium on Marco Island contacted real estate broker Revac about selling timeshare weeks at the condo resort. Revac at that time — and never in the past or future — had not only NOT registered as a real estate broker in Florida, but had no one working for it as a principal that was licensed as a real estate professional with the State of Florida. Moreover, at no time did Revac bring on board any real estate agents that were licensed by the State of Florida as real estate agents to help sell the property.

The deal was made between the Florida owners and Revac in Switzerland. Revac was a Swiss company. Revac had past success selling timeshare condos in Europe. Revac and the owners signed an agreement where Revac was to get commissions on the sales of 100 timeshare weeks in the Florida condominium. The commission was 20% to be paid by the owner to Revac.

Mr. Woodward was the attorney for the owner. Albert Carasso was the managing director of the real estate brokerage firm Revac. Carasso came to Florida to do the deal. Woodward would use his escrow account to pay Revac its commission at the time of closing on the timeshare deals.

Revac worked to get sales done, and buyers were found – in Europe. Some closings happened. However, Mr. Woodward did not release any money to Revac; instead he turned over what would be commission monies to his client, the owner. So, Revac sued the lawyer for the commission money it did not receive in these sales.

Using Florida Statute 475.41, Mr. Woodward successfully argued that he could not pay the commission to Revac because Florida law prohibited it – the statute invalidates any contract for a real estate commission unless the broker is licensed in Florida – and Revac failed to meet the legal requirements.

As the appeals court explained:

“Chapter 475 is intended “to protect the public from potential economic loss” caused by incompetent or dishonest real estate practitioners…. Especially in transactions involving condominiums and timesharing plans, a special knowledge of Florida law is necessary. … To protect the public from economic loss, it is important for Florida to maintain and develop a good reputation concerning investments in Florida real estate, without regard to the location or nationality of the investors. While Florida can realistically provide protection for persons damaged by licensed real estate brokers, it is difficult to protect persons from unregulated brokers…. Thus, we hold that Revac’s undisputed activities in Florida were sufficient to invoke section 475.41, Florida Statutes (1981), precluding the enforcement of its claim for commission.”

Make Sure Your Real Estate Agent or Broker Is Properly Licensed

Before you contract with a real estate professional in Florida, it’s important to confirm that they are properly and currently licensed to do business in our State. This is especially important to do before you go to closing and pay them a commission. If the agent/broker is not appropriately licensed, no matter how professional they appear or how smooth the transaction has gone, then they are not eligible to receive that commission under our laws.  An experienced Florida real estate lawyer can really be helpful if you discover that there’s a problem with the credential’s of the person demanding a commission.  Most real estate attorneys, like Larry Tolchinsky, offer a free initial consultation to answer any questions.

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Do you have questions or comments? Then please feel free to Chat with Larry in the comments below, at, or (954) 458-8655. If you have a specific or personal situation, please call or email Larry because he can’t answer specific fact questions in general comments.